Communication is always a long process that is in the process of finding understanding and agreement.
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Theory of mass communication as a professional discipline. Abstract
Mass communication theory is the first fundamental professional discipline that will lead you into the world of professional communication.
I draw your attention to the word professional. Professional, not professional, ie communication, which takes place not in a certain professional field, but at a high level, skillfully, as befits a professional, a connoisseur of the rules of communication and speech. Therefore, it is assumed that after studying this discipline and many others within 4-5 years you should become a highly qualified specialist in mass communication.
The word communication came to us through the English language (communication) from the Latin communicare, which means “to be in touch, to participate, to unite.” The words communicate, community, communication are cognate. Ukrainian counterparts are to connect, communicate, union, community, communication. Russian, respectively, common, society, communicate, communication, join. As we see, the idea of unity, unification, connection with the community is decisive for the concept of communication, or communication.
To communicate means to become a member of the community, which means to empathize, to become spiritually close, to adhere to the norms of coexistence. The defining factor here is the connection between the members of the community, but undoubtedly this connection should be not so much physical as spiritual. The fact of spiritual unity and the existence of common forms of spiritual connection create a community. Communication, or communication, means the establishment of such unity through appropriate forms of spiritual unity (spiritual connections). Spiritual union is nothing but the work of the soul and the mind. Thus, understanding is an important factor in communication, because only mental unity can indicate the unity of union, the unity of thought and deed.
Thus, communication, if it occurs, involves the following features:
communicators – those between whom communication takes place, in particular the communicator – the one who initiates the process of communication, acts as its addressee, and the communicator – the one to whom communication is directed and who is its addressee; spiritual and intellectual unity of those who communicate – a common consciousness, a common culture; a common form of spiritual being – language; if necessary, common sign systems that replace language in certain situations – writing, foreign languages, etc. sign systems; if necessary, community-created means of communication – books, periodicals, etc.; socio-psychological ability to communicate – the ability to speak, express thoughts, feelings in accordance with the social function and social prescriptions and the ability to listen, perceive and understand what is said depending on the social function of the listener / reader, as well as social requirements.
The main results of successful communication are always mutual understanding and agreement:
the listener’s agreement with the speaker, the consent to do as the interlocutor requires, the situation.
The process of communication can be complicated by disputes, misunderstandings, but communication should always end in full agreement. 30% agreement means that communication, unfortunately, also took place only 30%. Therefore, the skills and methods of persuading the interlocutor are important in communication to ensure full agreement and avoid conflict in the communicative situation.
These skills are part of the professional profile of a communication specialist, and methods of persuasion are the basis of his professional knowledge. The main conflict during communication is a conflict between interlocutors in the absence of agreement due to misunderstanding. Communication is always a long process that is in the process of finding understanding and agreement.
Communication is not a result, it is a process of finding a result. In this lecture we will limit ourselves to a brief description of the phenomenon of communication. Note only that communication as a term is a complete synonym for urgent communication. Our discipline could be called “Theory of Mass Communication”. But why do we prefer the word communication?
Let’s name the reasons of our choice.
1. The main reason is the prevalence of the term communication in science and industry to denote the process of communication associated with the activities of the media and journalism. Note the existence of at least the following names: international non-governmental organizations – the International Association for Media and Communication Studies, the World Association for Christian Communication, the Center for Communication and Human Rights, etc.; monographs, scientific collections, textbooks – Theoretical and methodological foundations of the study of the content of mass communication, Elements of the theory of communication, Theory and practice of communication, Theory of communication, Mass communication, Values and symbols in mass communication, etc.
2. A certain limitation of the word communication in relation to its functioning in the scientific and industrial spheres. Our word is mainly non-terminological in nature, due to the expansive tracing of the international word communication through English and other Romano-Germanic languages into our science and practice, as the question of studying communication processes in Western science was raised much earlier than in Ukrainian or Russian.
Already at the beginning of the twentieth century, “the rapid development of the press, which reached mass circulation, as well as documentary and feature cinema, the active introduction of radio in everyday life attracted their attention, gave rise to the belief that these media have considerable power over mass audiences. opinion, change attitudes and behavior, impose political orientations. “All this has to some extent led to the interpretation of the tracing of the English word communication as a term with a multi-valued structure and the limited use of the native word communication to denote, in particular, the processes of mass literacy narrative ideas communication.
There are hundreds of definitions of communication in science today. Back in the 70s of the twentieth century. F. Dance in the article on the concept of communication recorded 95 definitions and grouped them into 15 categories [Dance F.]. In 1975, the Polish researcher H. Walinska de Hackbeil in her doctoral dissertation “The concept of communication in the American theory of mass communication” recorded more than 200 definitions found in American literature, and identified 18 semantic (semantic) categories.
Polish communicator T. Goban-Klas in his textbook “Mass Media and Mass Communication” gives seven typical definitions of communication [Goban-Klas T., 42-43]:
communication as transmission (translation, transmission) of information, ideas, emotions, skills; communication as understanding others, when we ourselves strive to be understood (communication as understanding); communication as an influence by means of signs and symbols on people; communication as an association (creation of a community) with the help of language or signs; communication as interaction with the help of symbols; communication as an exchange of meanings between people who have in common perceptions, aspirations and positions; communication as a component of the social process, which expresses group norms, exercises public control, distributes roles, achieves coordination of efforts, etc.
Carefully analyzing these definitions, you come to the conclusion that these are not definitions that contradict each other, they only complement each other; each of the definitions covers a certain side of the phenomenon, giving a deeper understanding of communication. As the Ukrainian researcher of communication GG Pocheptsov notes, it is not necessary to worry that there are hundreds of definitions. Even the fact that communication has long been understood as a means of transport, physical communication (mail, telephone, cart, horses, boat, train, river, canal, sea, sewer, etc.), does not mean that physical and symbolic communications – completely different terms.
The idea of communication in communication is dominant, and this has given rise to such a wide use of the term communication – to denote the means of communication in general. An interesting case occurred in 1935 with the American critic and philosopher K. Burke, who wrote a book called “Treatise on Communication”. The publisher forced the author to change the title because he feared that readers would perceive it as mail or telephone intelligence.